Publishing means making information available to the public. In the past this was done mainly through issuing printed copies of documents. Now there are many more options such as websites, print, DVD, e-publications and apps.
Academic publishing is a system of publishing necessary for academic scholars to review work and make it available to a wider audience. Most of the academic works are published in a journal article, book, or in thesis form. Nowadays academic publishing is in electronic form. Many academic journals are interdisciplinary and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. These publications are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research. They vary greatly between fields
Publishing is one of the necessary steps embedded in the scientific research process. It is also necessary for graduation and career progression.